|جمهورية مصر العربية |
Gumhūriyyet Maṣr el-ʿArabiyyah
(Arab Republic of Egypt)
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of its territory of 1,010,000 square kilometers (390,000 sq mi) lies within North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
The economy of Egypt is one of the most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. Egypt is considered to be a middle power,with significant cultural, political, and military influence in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Muslim world.
There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgrazing around 8000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara.
By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade.
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until 639–42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs. When they defeated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country.
Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with Cairo as the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids. With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about AD 1250.
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman invasion pushed the Egyptian system into decline. The defensive militarization damaged its civil society and economic institutions.
The brief French invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte began in 1798. After the French were defeated by the British, a power vacuum was created in Egypt, and a three-way power struggle ensued between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans. It ended in victory for the Albanians led by Muhammad Ali.
While he carried the title of viceroy of Egypt, his subordination to the Ottoman porte was merely nominal. Muhammad Ali established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. In later years, the dynasty became a British puppet.
On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. Nasser assumed power as President in June 1956. British forces completed their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone on 13 June 1956. He nationalized the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956, prompting the 1956 Suez Crisis.
Three years later (1970) President Nasser died and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat in 1970. Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition. In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier.
Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League. Sadat was assassinated by an Islamic extremist. Hosni Mubarak came to power after the assassination of Sadat.
On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's government. On 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. The Egyptian military then assumed the power to govern. Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, became the de facto interim head of state. On 13 February 2011, the new military dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution.
A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 2011. On 28 November 2011, Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power. Turnout was high and there were no reports of major irregularities or violence. Mohamed Morsi was elected president on 24 June 2012.
First Tiberium WarEdit
At the time of the start of the First Tiberium War, Egypt's government remained what it had been for some time, a staunch supporter of the GDI. Though it was considered a Formidable Military Power, GDI had seriously underestimated Nod's military power in Africa. Their sudden invasion from Libya shocked everyone with the speed with which it overrun the country.
Under Nod occupation however Egypt would suffer massively, likely from Tiberium related maladies combined with resultant starvation. It's population fell from 56,886,000 to a mere 23,154,000 (a reduction of 59.3%). Under such conditions the return of GDI forces to Egypt was welcomed by many Egyptians as a liberation and the GDI, not wishing to dissapoint implemented a new Democratic government in Egypt.
But the Nod counter-offensive launched from Libya and Sudan but converging on Luxor was victorious and successfully drove the GDI out of Egypt once again. There was much bloodshed as Nod eliminated all those who were percieved as supportive of the new government the GDI had installed. Afterwards Nod would remain control for the rest of the First Tiberium War and the entire period between that and the Second Tiberium War.
With the apparant death of Kane Egypt would become the seat of General Hassan who would eventually rise to power over the Brotherhood of Nod while at the same time secretly collaborating with the GDI. From Egypt's continuing importance however it can be surmised that Nod must have managed to prevent any further massive decline in population following their reconquest.
|“||Nod Categorisation of Egypt at the time of their first invasion||”|
- Population: 56,886,000
- Expendability: 75%
- Capital: Cairo
- Government type: Republic
- Government corruptibility : 18%
- Net Worth: $39.2 billion
- Military Strength: Formidable
- Military Reistance: 82%
|“||Nod Categorisation of Egypt at the time of their second invasion||”|
- Population: 23,154,000
- Expendability: 45%
- Capital: Cairo
- Government type: Democracy
- Government corruptibility : 3%
- Net Worth: $39.2 billion
- Military Strength: Reasonable
- Military Reistance: 100%
Second Tiberium WarEdit
During the early days of the Second Tiberium War, the Nod General and GDI collaborator Hassan based himself in Egypt, commanding from a pyramid outside the capital, Cairo, until he was defeated by Slavik. As Kane prepared to launch the World Altering Missile from his Pyramid base in Cairo which would have covered the Earth's surface in Tiberium, Egypt began to become unsettled as some citizens began to ally themselves with GDI upon seeing the state the conflict was now in. In response to this the city that allied itself with GDI was massacred in the early stages of the Cairo invasion. Cairo was attacked by GDI troops led by McNeil, ending the Second Tiberium War.
Third Tiberium WarEdit
After the Second Tiberium War, Egypt remained a Nod stronghold. The country was severely affected by the spread of Tiberium, to the point that parts of the country was transformed into uninhabitable Red Zones. During the Third Tiberium War, Egypt became a battlefield once again. GDI forces launched an assault on the country, destroying Nod port facilities in Alexandria, and a Nod nuclear missile silo in Cairo, along with a secret lab in Casabad where Kane was developing a Liquid Tiberium bomb. Nod's long time control of Egypt was finally ended when GDI troops destroyed the Nod Headquarters outside Cairo.